Radiographic Atlas of Skull and Brain Anatomy

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Masterful 2D and 3D head, neck, and brain dissections provide unsurpassed insights into head, neck, and brain anatomy An internationally renowned and beloved author, educator, brain anatomist, and neurosurgeon, Professor Albert Rhoton has a special place in medical history. Special Features Each anatomic dissection meticulously labeled with English and Latin descriptors for easy cross referencing with other resources. Multiple views of the most complex regions of the head, neck, and brain provide a deeper understanding of anatomy.

Superb 2D images presented in a large printed format to optimize the viewing experience. Specimens injected with colored silicone provide better visualization of arteries and veins. Category: Anatomy. Rate this product. Get NEWS! Product Search. Publishing Ltd. Tardy, Jr.

e-Anatomy the interactive atlas of human anatomy

Select Year Select Rating 1 2 3 4 5. The increased FDG signal defining the brain tumor was located in the right thalamic region. The quality of the alignment procedure was in this case considerably enhanced by utilizing CT as a complementary imaging modality.

The readily identifiable bregma and the interaural line provided concrete landmarks which could be aligned in 3-D atlas space. Inaccuracies can occur due to inter-subject variations in brain shape and size, and due to the fusion procedure of the PET and CT data prior to import into m3d. SPM delivers a result volume cluster of voxels at a specified statistical significance value Figures 6 U and 6 V. This parametric volume was already fitted to the space of a defined anatomic template. The MRI template was imported and aligned to the 3-D atlas space in m3d by the aim of well-defined landmarks, i.

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The nociceptive conditioning is an aversive and stressful event, in which amygdala play a crucial role Sah et al. After alignment, a significant effect of nociceptive conditioning could be localized to the rostral volume of the amygdala Figures 6 W and 6 X. The alignment of the MRI template to the 3-D atlas space was performed using a best-fit approach based on large brain regions. Due to variations in the rat brain shape and size, a perfect fit is difficult to obtain.

If focusing on specific areas within the brain, the transformation parameters might be altered using smaller local sub-regions as alignment landmarks.

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However, the resolution of microPET and averaging over several individuals has an inherent inaccuracy limiting the detailed localization and separation of smaller effects to specific, smaller sub-nuclei of any rat or even mouse brain structure. Once the MRI-template has been sufficiently aligned to a 3-D atlas, the same transformation routine and result reading can be established for all data processed with statistical parametric mapping.

Basic Radiology of the Skull

The 3-D atlas makes the data processing and interpretation less observer dependent. As shown in Figures 6 T— 6 X, the 3-D atlas ensures a sufficiently precise allocation of a statistical significant result to a brain area in relation to neighboring structures. We present a multi-platform tool that provides a new dynamic and analytical environment for comparing experimental image data to a seminal atlas reconstructed in 3-D.

Our 3-D reconstruction procedure was applied to two commonly used rodent brain atlases, but could be applied to other atlases as long as they provide diagrams from sections with limited distortions, mapped into a stereotaxic coordinate system. In the example analyses provided, variable amounts of information was available to assist the user with the registration of the experimental data to the 3-D atlas space. The most limited structural information was present in the receptor binding PET data. The global registration performed for these data, based on the outer contours of the brain visible in the early frames recorded, was nevertheless sufficient to identify the caudate-putamen as the region containing the highest [ 18 F]-fallypride receptor binding, in agreement with legacy data Mukherjee et al.

The acquisition of CT images in register with the experimental PET images facilitated the atlas registration considerably, since skull landmarks readily detected with CT could be directly mapped to the atlas coordinate space which is based on the same skull landmarks. In our analyses, we demonstrate an indirect MRI-based co-registration procedure.

With this procedure, the data sets were aligned to a common MRI template, which in turn was registered to the 3-D atlas. In this example, the location of the statistically significant increased activity was found in the expected location in the brain, in our case the amygdala following a nociceptive conditioning Sah et al. Finally, direct import of experimental MRI data can be done with a high accuracy since a range of landmarks in the brain are visible in the MRI data.

The general validity of the linear co-registration approach used in the present study is indirectly demonstrated by the replication of known findings in the shown examples. This correspondence is at a level sufficient to study topographical organization within sub-nuclei. The major displacement between atlas and images in this example, not corrected for in our approach, was found in the hindbrain. This displacement appears to be due to a dislocation of the hindbrain occurring at the time of extraction of the brain from the skull.

Further analyses of the hindbrain would therefore require a second step of registration in which the hindbrain is treated in isolation from the remaining part of the brain. Adjustment for size variation alone will clearly facilitate comparison of brain stem data from different rat brains Brevik et al. Thus, for tomographic material of the quality here exemplified, our linear procedures appear to provide sufficient accuracy to resolve most questions related to localization of data and comparison between animals.

More optimized co-registration of multiple detailed anatomical landmarks derived from histological images Lein et al. An important feature of the 3-D atlas tool provided is the ability to co-register image data to an atlas framework. Future developments will include other data formats. As discussed above, several approaches can be employed for aligning image data to atlas space.

In m3d, image data can be linearly transformed i. The transformation matrix is calculated based on identifiable landmarks in the image data. A PET image volume typically lacks well-defined structural information which may complicate the alignment. The alignment of an MRI volume is based on anatomical landmarks such as the outer boundaries of the brain and white matter. In a CT volume, the definition of bregma and the interaural line provides a rigid aid in calculating the transformation matrix. Since the present approach is based on linear transformations only, local alignment errors may occur due to inter-subject variations in rodent brain shape and size.

Given that such variations may be partly compensated for by linear transformations, the need to adjust for remaining variability must be viewed in relation to the resolution employed in the tomographic image volumes to be analyzed. The present approach, with a common analytical environment for experimental data and 3-D atlas reconstructions, not only facilitates direct assignment of anatomical location, but may also be useful in the context of generating probabilistic representations of the brain. Probabilistic maps are typically based on manually segmented cases, but may also incorporate information from reconstructed atlases.

Co-registration of manually segmented cases into a common atlas space would thus enable the construction of a probabilistic atlas, containing a priori probabilities of various anatomical structures at each location in atlas space. Such a probabilistic atlas, in combination with the image contrast properties of different structures, can in turn be used to automate the process of anatomical segmentation Ali et al.

A major advantage of reconstructing standard stereotaxic atlases rather than constructing new customized atlases is the wide recognition and use, and the high-resolution and comprehensive nomenclature, of these atlases.

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Similarly, for human brain imaging data, the frequently used reference atlas space Talairach and Tournoux, has been made available in many different formats in order to have a common reference space in the scientific community. Digital versions of the human brain atlas exist in three orthogonal planes with a high-speed database server for querying and retrieving data about human brain structures over the internet ric.

The present application of the 3-D atlases of the rat and the mouse brain makes it simpler and more reliable to use these atlases in combination with 3-D imaging modalities, and to bring data from different modalities into the same environment. A further challenge would be to bring different tomographic data modalities together with primarily 2-D histological or other section-based data, such as optical imaging data and autoradiography.

At present, the skull-based stereotaxic coordinate system of Paxinos and Watson would seem to be a suitable common reference space. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be constructed as a potential conflict of interest. Storm for valuable discussions and facilitation of the present project.

Ali, A. Automated segmentation of neuroanatomical structures in multispectral MR microscopy of the mouse brain. Neuroimage 27, — Pubmed Abstract Pubmed Full Text. Badea, A. Neuroimage 37, — Benveniste, H. Magnetic resonance microscopy of the C57BL mouse brain. Neuroimage 11, — Boline, J.

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Society for Neuroscience Abstract and itinerary viewer. Program No. Brevik, A. Three dimensional computerised atlas of the rat brain stem precerebellar system: approaches for mapping, visualization, and comparison of spatial distribution data.

Chan, E. Neuroscience , — Chapin, J.

Anatomy Resources

Mapping the body representation in the SI cortex of anesthetized and awake rats. Deschenes, M. The organization of corticothalamic projections: reciprocity versus parity. Brain Res. Fabri, M. Topography of connections between primary somatosensory cortex and posterior complex in rat: a multiple fluorescent tracer study. Field, K. Anaesthetic effects of chloral hydrate, pentobarbitone and urethane in adult male rats. Fischl, B. Whole brain segmentation: automated labeling of neuroanatomical structures in the human brain.

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